Even though animation was conceived as early as 1824 by Peter Roget, the very first actual methods of animation were made possible by a device called a zoetrope. The zoetrope was a spinning cylinder with open slits that would allow viewing of certain still images in a certain sequence. Someone viewing a zoetrope at a particular angle could see images that appeared to be moving.After Edison and the invention of motion pictures in 1889, film director Emile Cohl combined more than 700 still drawings, which were then each meticulously photographed individually. When Cohl combined all of the shots together, the drawings appeared to be moving on the film, ntasmagorie," which was released in 1908. Other animated films soon followed like "Gertie the Dinosaur" and "Felix the Cat," both released around 1920.First, a storyboard is created showing a quick sketch of the general idea and direction of the cartoon or animated feature. Next, the dialog is recorded before the actual animators create the final inked cartoons on pieces of clear celluloid acetate, or cels. After inking, animators paint in the color on the opposite side of the cel and finally combine all the cels to be photographed, using a special film motion picture camera.
Cel animation allows animators to repeat certain frames, eliminating the need to draw each individual frame over and over in a sequence of animation. Backgrounds and fixed objects may be included in every background cel while other cels are removed and replaced over and over to simulate movement by animated characters.For example, if there are two characters in a scene and only one character is moving in this scene, an animator would draw character A on a clear piece of film called a cel. Then, using another second cel, the animator will draw character B. As character A is jumping up and down in a sequence of moves, a new cel is created for each movement. These cels are then combined and shot on a special film camera in a logical sequence that makes character A look like he's jumping up and down, while character B remains unmoving.